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        金沙澳门体育门户ByChengGuoqiang,InformationCenterofDRCResearchReportNo134,2013(Total4383)heglobalagriculturaldevelopmentstrategymeanstocomprehensivelytakesuchstrategicmeasureslikedirecttrade,diversifiedimport,overseasagriculturalinvestmentandnew-typeinternationalcooperationinagriculture,activelytapglobalagriculturalresources,effectivelyuseinternationalagriculturalmarket,profoundlyintegratetheglobalindustrialchainofagriculturalproduction,processing,logistics,markingandtrade,andestablishasustainable,stableandsafeglobalagriculturalproductsupplynetworkcateringtothenationalgrainsecuritystrategy,withtheglobal-perspective-basednationalgrainsecuritystrategyasthebasicgoalandthebettercoordinat,itisastrategicdemandtoensuren,inonetotwodecadestocome,alongwiththeconstantprogressofindustrializationandurbanization,increasingpopulation,andupgradinggrainconsumptionstructurecausedbyhigherincome,China,thecontradictioncausedbyscarceragriculturalresources;inparticular,alongwithtightenedrestraintoflandandwaterresourcesanddegradingcomparativeadvantageofagriculture,theallocationofresourcefactorswillbeincreasinglyshifindtheconsumptiondemand,whileitisneitherpossiblenorrealis,pureself-sufficiencyofagriculturalproduceswouldrequireover3billionmu(15mumakeonehectare)ofsowingland,,presentingagapofabout20%whichcou,greatresource,environmentalandeconomiccostwouldbepaidfortheignoranceofthelargepopulationandscarcelandresourcesinChinaandover,strategicallyspeaking,itisunavoidabletoimportagriculturalproductsfromforeigncountriesanduseoverseasagriculturalresourcestoensurethenationalgrainsecurityandtheeffectivesupplyofmajoragriculturalproducts,anditisurgenttoformulateandimplementtheglobalagriculturalstrategyandestablishasustainable,,Chinashouldfurtheropenitsagriculturesectortotheousmoreactiveopenfields,improvethestructureandqualityofsuchfields,dimentofthefurtheropeningupofagricultureandani,overseasagriculturalinvestmentandcooperationaswellasotherstrategicmeasurescannotonlyfullytaptheagriculturalresourceadvantageoftheglobe,catertothestrategicbenefitsofcountrieswithrichagriculturalresources,especiallydevelopingcountries,promotedevelopingcountriestoimprovetheself-sufficiencyofgrainandagriculturalproductsandenhancetheircapabilitytodealwithgrainrisksandensuregrainsecurity,buttheyarealsosignificanttomaintainastableandsoundglobalgrainmarket,eliminatepovertyacrossthewo,theyareimportantmovestodevelopgood-neighborandfriendshiprelationswithothercountries,especiallywithneighboringcountriesandestablishanew-typeglobalgovernancestruct,thereareasoundinternationalagriculturalresourcesbasisandd,globalagriculturalresou,,includingmorethan1billionhectares1suitablerespectivelyforgrowingpaddy,wheat,cornandsoyabean,indicatingapotentialyieldgrowthof8%-10%.Thepotentialforwheatyieldgrowthismainlyfromdevelopedcountriesandtransitioneconomies,whilethatforpaddy,menttheglobalagriculturalstrategyanddestrategyistoestablishanationalgrainsecuritystrategicmechanismbasedontheglobalperspective,andconstructasustainable,,thefollow,theimprovementofthecompreovethegrainsupportandprotectionsystemasthecore,strengthenandimprovethegrainreservesystemasthekey,improvetheagriculturalproductimportandadjustmentmechanismasthesupplementandbuildthemoderngrainmarketsystemasthesupport,soastoensuretheself-sufficiency2ofpaddy,wheatandotherstablegrainandformanewnationalgrainsecurityframeworkfeaturing"settingfootathomeandseekingglobalsupply".Second,theagricultural"goglobal"strategyshouldbeimplementedtoencourageenterprisesofvariouskindstoincreasetheiroverseasagriculturalinvestmentandgetinvolvedininternationalagriculturaltradeandcooperation,exploreandformthediversifiedagriculturalproductimportadjustmentmechanism,andestablishasustainable,,theinternationalcooperationonagricultureshouldbedeepenedandexpanded,withthefocusonagriculturalaid3toandcooperativedevelopmentofagriculturalresourceswithdevelopingcountriesorregions,edcountrieswithabundantagriculturalresources,activelyparticipateintheircomprehensiveagriculturaldevelopmentandtheconstructionoftheglobalsupplychain,andincreasetheeffectivesupplyofglobalagriculturalproductsthroughdiverseways;anditshouldalsosparenoeffortstoadvocatetheconceptof"globalresponsibility"toprotecttherighttofood,holdthatmajoragriculturalresourcecountriesandmajoragriculturalproductsexportershouldshouldercorrespondingdutiesandresponsibilitiestomaintainstableagriculturalproductionandproductssupply,reducetheshockofbiomassenergyonthesupplyandpriceofagriculturalproductsintheglobalmarketandsafeguardthebasicrighttofoodforpeopleoftheworld.ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo12,,Chinasgrainyieldincreasedfortheeighthconsecutiveyear,(twojinmakeonekilogram)%.Theharvestin2011istheresultofacombinationofrelevantfactorsincluding"supportingpolicy,boomingmarket,hardworkandfavorableweather".Theyieldincreasecanmainlybeattributedtomoresupportingpolicies,steadyfoodprice,extensivepopularizationofmhinasgrainself-sufficiencyhasdroppedto90%.AsChinasmajorimportsaresoybeansinsteadofcereals,however,themajorcerealslikerice,wheatandcornaremorethan98%,Chinastillremainsvulnerabletofrequentandseverenaturaldisasters,roblemof,majorgrainproducingregionsare,the13majorgrainproducingprovincesaccountedfor76%ofthecountry%,atypicalconcerninsomeofthemajorgrainproducingprovincesisthatgrainproduction,insteadofbeinganadvantage,,,therestareexpectedtoberaisedattheprovincial,ssecondgrainproducerHenanProvincehasbeenthel,itspercapitafiscalexpenditurestoodatmerely3,063yuan,whilethefigureofShanghaiwas15,563yuan,,therefore,isstillaprimarytaskwhilehandlingthethree-dimensionalruralissues,namelytheproblemsofagriculture,,inordertostabilizegrainproduction,weshouldfirstmobilizethefarmersinitiativeinplantinggraincropsandthelocalgovernmentsinitiativeinemphasizinggrainproduction.(1)KeepareasonablegrainpriceComparedtotheresidentsincomeandtheoverallpricelevel,einterestsofagricultureandindustry,andalsoanimportanticeforwheatandriceprocurement.(2)Optimizethelong-termmechanismoffinancialsubsidytofarmersgrowinggraincropsOvertherecentyears,thepricesfordieseloil,fertilizerandagriculturalservicesaswellasthecostonlaborhavebeenincreasingconsistently,andtheprofitfromgrainplantinghasbeenreduced,ubsidytoalevelreasonableenoughtocompensatefarmerscostingrowinggrainsandalsoguaranteeforthemanappropriatelevelofprofit.(3)OptimizethebenefitcompensationmechanismformajorgrainproducingregionsIn2011,thecentralfinancerewardedatotal20billionyuanto200majorgrainproducingcountiesthroughoutthecountry(10millionyuanforeachcounty).Sucharewardingpolicyhashelpedtoalleviatetoacertainextentthefinancialdifficultyofthemajorg,thegeneralfeed-backf(15mumakeonehectare)stoodatmerely11yuaninHenan,thefinancialdifficultyofmajorgrainproducingcountiesstandsasaprominentproblemandthecentralfinanceshouldgrantthemrewardsaccordingtothepercapitafinancialresourcesatthecountylevel,ensuringavailabilityofadequatefundsforbasicexpenditureandforsocialundertakingsandimprovingtheirinitiativesindevelopinggrainproduction.(4)ContinuetappingthepotentialofimprovingtheyieldonperunitoflandItsdifficulttorealizebalancedyieldincreaseoverlargeareasbyrelyingonsingletechnology,therefore,weshouldintegrateandpopularizeadvancedandpracticaltechnologies,promotethecombinationofimprovedvarietiesandadvancedmethods,and,cotton,sugarandfreshagriculturalproductsWeshouldhandlewellthecollectionandstorageofcottonandavo,butthepriceincreasehasfailedtoleadtocorrespondingproductionincreassthereforebecomingangedplanformarketregulationsoastoavoidthepricecycleof"biggerincreasefollowedbysharpfall".

        ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilResearchReportNo210,2012(Total4212)alCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChina,Chinahasmaderemarkableprogressinissuesrelatingtoagriculture,soverallagriculturalproductivityhasincreasedsubstantially,farmerslivingstandardshavebeensignificantlyraised,importantheadwayhasbeenmadeinmodernizingagricultureandbuildingsocialistnewruralareas,andthebalancebetweenvelopmentwasatitsbest,,achievementsrelatingtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersaremainlydemonstratedinthefollowingfiveaspects:,Chinasgrainoutputhasincreasedcontinuouslyfor9years,,,,oil,sugar,meat,eggsandmilkhavemadeanewbreakthrough,aincomeDuetothecombinedeffectofvariousfactors,,theaverageannualgrowthhasexceeded8%.Farmersincomestructureexperiencedremarkablechanges,withthesourcesofincomegrpercapitanetincomeincreasedfrom36%in2005to41%in2010;between2005and2010,theaveragecontributionofwageincometofarmers%.Ruralmigrantworkerscontinuouswageincoincomegrowthandimprovementinruralmarketcirculation,andunderthenationalpolicytospurruralconsumption,ruralconsumptiondemandrosesignificantly,andfarmers,thetwoexemptionsandonesubsidypolicy(liesfrompayingtuitionandmiscellaneousfees,andtoprovidelivingsubsidiesforboarders)concerningruralcompulsoryeducationhasbeenfullyimplement,thethreesystems,namelythenewruralcooperativemedicalsystempilotedin2003,theminimumsubsistenceallowancessystemfullyestablishedin2007andthenewruralpensionschemepilotedin2009,realizedfullcoveragein2012;othersocialsecurityschemessuchasruralfiveguarantees(,clothing,housing,medicalcareandburialexpensesforold,weak,orphaned,widowedordisabledruralresidentswhoareunabletoworkandhavenofamilysupport.)alsorapidlydevelopedandadvanced;withtheimplementationofgovernmentresponsibilityinruralresidentssocialsecurity,wishesoverthepastthousandsofyears,,beingprovidedforatoldage,beingproperlytreatedwhenill,andbeingassistedwhileindifficultcircumstances,,notableprogressismadeinconstructionofwater,electricity,roads,,benefitingfarmers,andenrichingruralareasFirstly,inordertoguaranteefoodmarketsuppliesandsecuregraingrowersbenefits,theStatehasi,inresponsetothepricedecreaseanddifficultsaleofcertainagriculturalproducts,temporaryprocurementandstoragemeasureshavebeentakenforcorn,soybean,,,the,subsidycategorieshaveextendedtopaddyrice,wheat,corn,rape,cotton,potatoes,peanuts,highlandbarley,pigs,,subsidiesforgrowingimprovedvarietiesofpaddyrice,wheat,,inordertoaccelerateagriculturalmechanization,subsidiesforpurchaseofagriculturalmachineryandtoolswereestablished,farmerswhopurchasedadvancedagriculturalmachineryandtoolswouldbegrantedsubsidies,andcategoriesofsubsidizedagriculturalmachineryandtoolskeptincreasing,,thecentralgovernmeofagriculturalcapitalgoodssuchasfertilizeranddiesel,in2006,thecentralgovernmentofChina,,,whichplayedasignificantroleinmobilizingfarmersinitiativetogrowgrainsandinpromotingcontinualannualincreaseingrainproductionandfarmersincome,,fromthepilotmeasuresmadein2000tooverallimplementationin2003andthentothecompleteabolishmentofagriculturaltaxin2006,ittook6yearsfortheagriculturaltaxreformtoterminatethe2600-year-oldpracticeofpayinggraintaxtothegovernment.Concomitantreformsoftownandtownshipgovernmentbodies,ruralcompulsoryeducation,countyandtownshipfinancialmanagementsystem,,ruraldebtdissolution,,in2004,gra,thereformintenureofcollectiveforestsmademajorbreakthroughs,andthereformgoalsofclearlydefiningthepropertyrightsan,ovincialgovernments,thefirststageofmanagementsystemreformwentthroughsuccessfullyforruralcreditcooperatives,nomicsectors,includingfarming,forestry,livestockhusbandry,side-occupation,fishery,theirrelatedproductions,processingandcommercializationactivities,,,significantprogresswasmadeinprotectingruralmigrantworkers,majorlawsandregulations,includingGuidelinesoftheStateCouncilonSolvingMigrantWorkersProblems,EmploymentPromotionLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,LaborContractLaw,SocialInsuranceLaw,LaborDisputesMediationandArbitrationLawandsoon,havebeensuccessivelypromulgated,andamendmentshavebeenmadetoRegulationsonWork-relatedInjuryInsurance,sothataproperlegalframeworkwasformedtoaddressruralmigrantworkersd,andmigrantworkersaccesstovocationalskilltraining,employmentguidance,socialsecurity,andsuchservicesaseducationoftheirchildren,familyplanning,diseasepreventionandsoonhavebeensignificantlyimproved.财神足彩---Ananalysisofeconomicsituationin2013andprospectsfor2014LiuShijin,YubinChenChangshengThisyearmarksthebeginningoftheoverallimplementationofthespiritofthe18thNationalCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChinaandtheconjuncturetoacceleratedevelop,theChinesegovernmentadoptedaseriesofregulatorymeasures,whicheffectivelyguidedthemarketexpectationandledeconomicoperationtoturnaroun,restrictedbystructuralproblems,thefoundationofcurrenteconomicrecoveryremainsunstable,%.Lookinginto2014,asinternationaleconomystabilizesingeneralanddomesticdemandgrowthfacesdownwardpressure,theeconomicgrowthispredictedtobeslightlyhigherthan7%.Whileimplementingprudentfiscalandmonetarypolicies,Chinashouldadheretotheguidelineofseekingimprovementinstabilityandpromotingprogressthroughstability,strivetoreleasethedividendofreformandstimulatemarketenergyandsocialcreativity,soastosubstantiallyreducecorporateoperationalcostandpromoteeeExtrusiveSinceJuly,economicoperati,thoughgrowthremainedlow,falsetradingconsiderablyreducedcomparedwiththebegineffectonupper-streamindustriesincludingheavyindustrybyover20%,scopeexpansionofVATforbusinesstax,administrationstreamliningpowerdelegationtolowerlevels,graduallyrelievedrestrictionforrailwayinvestmentaswellasthesettingupof,,,ture,growthofheavyindustriessuchascoalferrousmetalmininganddressing,steel,,realestateinvestmentdistinctlyfellbackinAugust,ecreased,andcoalinventorydaysofmajorplantsincreasedfromaround15daysinAugustto19days,,cokingcoal,coke,,,therebounddidn,economicrecoveryisfirstrefl,,,%onayear-on-yearbasis,;meanwhile,therheroleofmaintainingproductionandabsorbinginventory,butdidn’tcausethevirtuouscycleofincreasedinventory,,,,%onayear-on-yearbasis,%.Amongthem,newprofitsofpowerandheating,petroleumrefiningandcoking,,%(1),anditwasexpectedthatM2shareinGDPattheendofAugustwouldexceed200%,problemssuchasthemismatchofallocationofresourcesandtermsinthefinancialsystemwereextrusive,andcapitalchainkeptextendinuchasrealestateandinfrastructure,andliabilitiesofindustrialenterpidexpansionofmonetarycredit,furthertwistedfinancialresourceallocation,pushedmarketinterestrateup,andsqueezedoutcapitaldemandofsmallandmediumenterprises.(2),changeswiththerealestatemarketinfirst-tierandsecond-tiercitiesaswellasthird-tierandfourth-tiercitiestendedtobeconsi,aftertherapiddevelopmentinrecentyears,ngandlandandstartedtoseesupplyexceeddemandduetocon,inordertopromotemunicipalconstructionandmaintainfiscalbalance,localgovernmentscontinuedtosupplyland,causingh,firsndpublicservices,,theshareoflandforhousinginthesecitieswaslowandbothlandandhousingwereinshortsupply,whichintensifiedthepressureofpricerisingandcausedthebubbletofurtherexpand.

        :,bringingwithitaconstantlyhighCenteroftheStateCouncil(hereinafterreferredtoastheResearchGroup)basedonthesixthnationalcensusdata,anaveshousingguaranteesystemhasformedandkeptimprovingamidstcont,theacceleratedconstr,Chinahadaddressedthehousingneedsofanaccumulativetotalof31millionurbanhouseholdsbyofferingin-kindbenefits,%ructionduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,,%,thegovernmentwillplayamorepos,despitecontinuouslyimprovedurbanre,thoughtotalurbanhousingsupplyhasincreased,censusdata,(flatswithbothtoiletsandkitchens)in2010(mosthouseswithoutindependentkitchensandtoiletswerebuiltintheperiodofthe1950sto1970s).Second,,,thereisunevenhousingdistributionamongurbanhouseholds:,since2003,,197yuanpersquaremeterin2003toRMB5,850yuanpersquaremeterin2013nationwide,%.Suchtr,higherincomeforurbanresidents,householdsfissionandincrease,governmentspolicyoptionofboostingrealestatesectorandgrowingdemandforinvestmentandspeculationinsomeperiodoftime,allconstitutefactorspropellingrapidurbanhousingpricerise(Figure2Figure3).ByHanJun,HeYupengJinSanlin,ResearchTeamon"OverallPolicyOptionsforImprovingandInnovatingFloatingPopulationsManagementandServiceintheProcessofUrbanization",ResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo86,2013(Total4335)Populationwilltransferfromagriculturalsectorto,urbanizationandmodernization,anditalsochar,,whichhasneverbeenseeninanyothercountriesintheworldintermsofitshighspeed,largescale,velopment,nagementforfloatingpopulationtograduallysettlethemdowninurbanorruralareas,soastobuilda,wemustadoptamacroscopicthinking,aforward-lookingvisionandsystematicmethodstoconductthetop-level-basedsystemdesignatthenationallevel. sManagementandServicePolicyFastgrowingfloatingpopulationhasbroughtmorevigorandvitalitytothewholesocietya,animportantsourceforChinatoseforChinaonofthedualurban-ruraleconomicstructur,anditwillhaveanoverall,strategicandhistoricinfluenceonChinaedistributionisconducivetoimprovinglandresourceallocationbyreducingtheruralpopulation,enhancingfarmerscomparativebenefitsandrealizingbalancedurban-ruraldevelopmentandsynchronousprogressofthe"fourmodernization",andhelpingtobuildastableandhigh-qualityteamofindustrialworkersandthevastmiddleclassincitiesandimprovingthestructureofincomedistributionandpeoplesconsumptionlevel,sothatChinawillbedevelopedintoanationwithhigh-incomeandfeaturedbymodernization,,sucheffortscanguaranteeandimprovethelivelihoodofhundredsofmillionsofpeople,consolidatethePartysrrovingandstrengtheningthemanagementandserviceforfloatingpopulationintheprocessofbuildingawell-offsocietyinanall-roundwayandachievingmodernizationandaddressthisiationTheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilpayhighattentiontothemanagementandservicetowardsfloatingpopulationandhavemademajordecisionsandarrangements,sothatcompetentd,themanagementandserv,morestablelifeandbettereducation,thefloatingpopulationnowhasquitedifferentdesiresandappeals,posingagreateivesinsufficienteffectiveservicefromthepublicemploymentagencies,andha"majorrolebypublicschoolsandthegovernmentofthereceivinglocality"forthecompulsoryeducationformigrants%ofchildrenofmigrantruralworkersgotoprivateschoolsorschoolsformigrants"difficultyandhighcostformedicalservice"causedbypoorplanofmedicalinsurancesystemanddifficultsettlementservicefor,itisstillseriothserviceandfamilyplanningservice,,thefloatingpopulationisdeniedminimumlivingallowanceandothersocialwelfareservicesinthecitieswhoatingpopulationisincompleteandmigrantshaveapoorculturallife.  srightsandinterestsremainsprominentinsomeaspectsThefloatingpopulation,mainlymigrantruralworkers,,mainlymigrantruralworkersarecontractedinirregularlabordirenotwellprotected,forcedtransferencesofland-userightsoftenoccurfromtimetotime.  usedbyorganizations,activitiesandmanagementinthecommunitieswheretheyworkandlive,floatingpotingpopulationaretooweaktobeeffective.金沙澳门体育门户

        金沙澳门体育门户ByLiZhinengWangJicheng,DRCTaskForceonLaborShortageinEnterprisesinSpring2012,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCOveraperiodoftimeaftertheSpringFestival(ChinasLunarNewYearwhichfallsonJanuary23,2012),manymassmediareportedthe"laborshortage"issueinsomelocalitiesandenterprises,whichdrewextensiveattentionofgovernmentaldepartmentsconcerned."Laborshortage"indicatestheovegdong,Zhejiang,Henan,Anhui,SichuanandShaanxiProvincestofindoutifthereisorwillreallybea"laborshortage",ReasonableandRelaxedwithaHighRateofReturntoJobs,WhichIsQuiteOppositetotheReported"LaborShortage"ZhejiangProvinceisstillfacingarecruitmentplightin2012,yetthetenselaboremploymenthasbeenalleviatedascomparedtothepreviousyear,andthelabor-starvedindustriesandtypesofworktallybasicallywiththeprovince,ahighrateofreturntojobshasbeenwitnessedamongwork,thesurveyof4,000smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinYiwucitysuggeststhatinrecentyearsanaverageof65%ofveteranworkershavereturnedtofactoriesinYiwuandthenumberofnewworkersintroducedbyveteranworkersonlabormarketmadeupanother25%,leavingarelativelyreasonable10%,,,%ofthehome-returneesbeforetheSpringFestival,andtheti,therateofreturntojobsapproached90%.AftertheSpringFestival,therecruitmentisaimedatstaffsupplement,withtherecruitmen,employingworkerscautiouslya,themonitoringdataonlaboremploymentbyenterprisesofHenanProvincedemonstratethatthelaborshortageratewas18%,icipalitiesrevealthattherateofworkersreturntojobsexceeded70%,"recruitmentplight"ocialSecurityDepartmentamong10,654enterprisesin30state-andprovince-leveleconomican%%skeyenterprisesofelectricalhomeappliancesandfastmovingconsumergoodssawtheirratesofworkersreturntojobsaftertheSpringFestivalallexceeding90%and"enormousstaffinflowsandoutflows",GuangdongandAnhuiasaResultofEconomicGrowthSlowingDownandExportDecliningThefactthattheglobalfinancialcrisisisstillfarfromcomingto,theinternalresources,environmentalconstraintsandstructuralreadjustmentfacingChinaseconomicdevelopmenthaveallmadethedownturnofChinasGDPaverageannualgrowthrateinevitableduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodandareproducingachallengeto,smallandurgentordersareinlargenumber,,fromJanuary26toFebruary12,2012,,%,(February6),theprovincesstatisticalandsurveydepartmentr,tyear,suggestingthattheutilizationan,thenumberofnewlyincomingmigrantworkershasaccountedforonly5%orsoofallmigrantworkersintheprovince,beinglowerthanthelevelof10%sspeciallaboremploymentinvestigationdemonstratesthat3,966enterprisesintheprovinceareshortof50laborersormoreandtheyintendtorecruit245,000people,signifyingareductionof13,%.Labordemandonthehumanresourcesmarketisdecreasingaswellfromayearearlierandtheprincipalcauseisthatthepressureof,TransferwithinProvincesIsGrowingFast,theNumberofWorkersReturningHometownsforBusinessStartupandBackflowofSkilledWorkersHaveIncreased,yetOnlySomeNewly-increasedWorkersCanBeLocallyProvidedwithJobsAtpresent,,,,000everyyearduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,whiletheprovincecanonlyprovide350,000jobs,an,Yulin,TongchuanandHabusinessstartupsintheirhometowns,entrepreneurshiptrainingandsuchpoliciesasgovernmentsupplyofsmallloansguarantees,thenumberofmigr,224,000farmershadgonebacktoShaanxitostartbusinessesandsetup98,000enterprises,providingjobsto595,,,,ysbeengrowingsince2001andthenumberincreasedto23millionin2011,,upby778,000,,down214,"NewAreasofSichuan",thekeyprojectsinChengduin2012wouldneed350,,,2millionpeopleincitiesandtownsoftheprovinceneedjobsandtherea,ononehand,thesituationofChinafacedwithapressureofitsaggregateemploymentvolumecontinuallyintensifyinghasbecomemoresevereandcomplicatedduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodand,ontheother,thelaborforcetransferandrivalryamongtheeastern,lusters,whilecentralandwesternregionstakeineasterncoastalregionwithinashortperiodoftimeintermsofrelativelyperfectinfrastructurefacilities,completeindustrialchains,betterlivinpacitiesincentralandwesternregionshasincreasedtheaggregatelabordemand,yetwhentakingovershiftedindustriesandenterprisesfromtheeasternregion,someprovincesandmunicipalitiesincentralabypresententerprisesandareunableatalltoabsorbtheworkingpopulationsqueezedoutfromtheeasternregioninaddressingthefinancialcrisisandexportdownturn.HeYupengSincemid-1990s,thetransformationofthetraditionalagriculturehasbeennotablyexpeditedinChina,featuringtheacceleratedtransferofagriculturallaborfernization,sincetheendofthe10thFive-yearPlanperiod,transitionalchangesbegantotakeplaceintherelationshipsbetweencapitalandlaborinputinagriculture,featuringfarmer-workersgettingequalpayasagriculturalemploysagric,in2007,thecentralgovernmentissuedthe"",puttingforwardviewsattherighttimeonvigorouslydevelopingmodernagriculture,notonlyseizingthecriticalmomentforadvancingagriculturalmodernization,but,eversince,systematicallycontinuingtheenhancementofthepolment,withtheLevelofModernizationBeingSteppedUpMarkedlySincemid-1990s,especiallysincetheendofthe10thFive-yearPlanperiodandthebeginningofthe11thFive-yearPlanperiod,thelevelofChinasagriculturalmodernizationmeasuredbymechanization,extensiveuseoffarmchemicals,msoftheoverallenvironmentforagricageoffarmlandstotheincreaseofyieldperunitareaandthecapitalinputhasplayedaleadingroleinthisregard.(I)RemarkableProgressinMechanizationAfter1993,especiallysince1998,,thetotalmotivepoweroffarmmachineryreached820millionkilowatts,whichalmostdoubledthatof1997and,,withtheimplementationofthehouseholdcontractresponsibilitysystemwithremunerationlinkedtooutput,themotivepowerofsmalltractorssurpassedthatoflargeandmedium-sizedtractors,:,largeandmedium-sizedtractorsdevelopedrapidly,withtheaforesaidratioofmotivepowerdroppingto2:,thenumberoflargeandmedium-sizedtractorsincreasedbynearly1millionoverthepreviousyear,whichwasequivalentto1/3ofalllargeandmedium-sizedtractors,andthemotivepowerincreasedby20millionkilowatts,amountingto1/,thenumberofcombinescameto39,000in1990,topped100,000in1997to141,000andreached743,000in2008,increasingby100,,intermsofthemeansofproductionofpeasantfamilies,t,themanpowerand,thenumberofdraughtanimalsownedeveryonehundredhouseholdsreached26,,thenumberofmotorvehiclesand,whichmorethandoubled.(II)Ever-increasingUtilizationofFarmChemicalsIn2008,~2003,theamountofchemicalfertilizersappliedincreasedbyanannualaverageof720,000tons,~,since2004,~2008,,,,,spending,in2008,theamountofchemicalf,%,theareaofthearablelandsinChinaaccountsfor1/10oftheworldtotal,yettheamountoffertilizersappliedbyChinamakesup1/4oftheworldtotal,andtheamountoffertilizersappliedperunitareahascometo2timesthatofthedevelopedcountries.(III)LevelofIrrigationSteadilyontheIncreaseIn2008,,increasingbyabout10millionhectaresover1992,makingup48%,,,withtheannualaverageofincreasereaching1millionhectaresorso,accountingfor40%oftheincreasescoredduring1992~,,,in2008,,upby14%,%oftheper-capitaagriculturalacreage,,,%.Intermsofwaterconservancyworks,thereisawiderspaceforthedevelopmentofirrigationandwater-savingagriculture.(IV)Ever-growingLevelofElectrificationIn2008,,,theruralp,th,sizingupthelevelofagriculturalelectrificationwithruralp,powerconsumptionforagriculturalproductionhasincreasedconsiderablyinrecentyears,,theproduc,%,,upby45%over1990.(V)SupplyofAgriculturalMaterialandEquipmentEnhancedRemarkablyThegrowingagriculturalmechanization,farmchemicalutilization,irrigationareaandelectrificationreflecttheincreasedinputandtheimprovedinfrastructurebythegovernmentandtheenhancedsupplyofagriculturalmaterialandeched6,,,after2004,supplyofagriculturalmaterialandequipmenttopeasantfamilieshasbeenevidentlyenhanced,withtheimmobilizationsincreasedbymorethan2,,ithasmuchtodowiththepoliciesenforcedbythegovernmentinrecentyearstostrengthenthesupportandsubsidytoagriculture....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

        ByGuShuzhongZhangLiangHongTao,ResearchInstituteofResourcesandEnvironmentPoliciesofDRCResearchReportNo3,morehillyslopesdeterminetheimportantstatusofandrolesplayedbyhillyslopesintermsoflanddevelopmentandutilizationChinasmountainousregionsandhillylandsmakeup65%ofthecountry,thelandreclamationratehasbeenlowerthan10%,inZhejiang,70%aremountainousregions,23%areplainsand6%(15mumakeonehectare),,yettheareaofhillocksandgentleslopesisequivalenttothatofthearableland;theprovinceofYunnanhasapercentageof94%ofmountainousandsemi-mountainousregionsandapercentageofonly6%,plainsandbasinshavebeendevelopedconsiderablyandthoseareregionswherepopulation,,thepotentialfordevelopmentofthoseregionshavebecomelimited,yetthoseregionsareshoulderingtheresponsibilityandpressureofensuringeco,exploitingandutilizingmowlevelonthewholeandthepotentialsandprospectsforanoveralldevelopmentandutilizationarehugeandbroad(1),,suchhilloc,hillocksandgentleslopesareatypical"marginalland",amarginaltypeamongvarioustypesofland,thuscausingtheinstabilityoftheland,andchangesareapttohappeninusesofthelandandthelandiseasilyusedasforest,grass,arableandconstructionland,whichisusuallyknownas"marginalswitchofuses".(2)elopmentandutilizationofhillocksandgentleslopesinZhejiang,theprovincehas36millionmuintotalofutilizablehillocksandgentleslopes,ofwhich33millionmuaresuitableforfarming,%;,%;520,000muarehardtoutilize,%.TheareaofthehillocksandgentleslopesinZhejiangisequivalenttothatoftheprovincesarableland,yetthehillocksandgentleslopeshavelimitedpopulationandindustries,,thecountrywidehillocksandgentleslopesaccountforapproximately10%ofthetotallandarea,beingbasicallyequivalenttothenationalarablelandstock.(3)D:,residentiallandandinfrastructureland(road,drainage,sewagetreatment,trashtreatment,water-supplyandpower-supplyfacilities,etc.).Theselandtypescanbeusedaslandresourcesfortheconstructionofcitiesandtoweisureandlandscapeareasaccordingtotheirspecificconditionsandtheoverallplanning,whichisbeneficialtothemaintenanceoftheecologicalenvironmen,moreplainscanbeobtainedasarablelandthatismoresuitablefsarablelandthroughnecessaryproj,hillocksandgentleslopescanbeutilizedaslandresourcesfordevelopingnewenergyresources(windpowerandsolarpower).portantwayforrelievinglandshortageatpresentperiod(1)Theplightsofensuringtheeconomicdevelopmentandmain,urbanizationandmodernizationcurrentlytakingplaceinChina,therehasbeenarobustdemandforland,especiallylandforconstruction,,Chinaisconfronted,andwillbelongconfrontedwiththepressureandchallengeoffoodsecurityandtherehasbeenanever-increasingpressureandrequirementforprotectingarableland."Ensuringtheeconomicdevelopmentwhilemaintainingtherock-bottomamountofarableland"hasbeenandwillbe,withinalongperiodoftime,forconstruction.(2),thehillocksandgentleslopes,asthe"marginalland",havebecomethetargetandhopeforrelievingtheplights:constructionlandsupply,aswellasoneofthemainchannelsforprovidingimportantlandresourcesforindustrialization,urbanizationandconstructionofthenewcountryside;ablelandoccupiedforindustrialization,urbanizationandconstructionofthenewcountrysideandinfrastructurefacilitiesandforeffectivelyprotectingarableland;(thoughthechoiceisnowatissueandshouldnotbeadvocatedatpresent)forcomplementingarablelandresourcesaccordingtolocalconditions;tureandforgraduallyrealizingthemaximumefficiencybyutilizingthelandforfarming,sGovernmentonAdvancingtheOverallDevelopmentandUtilizationofHillocksandGentleSlopesdemonstratesthat"theoveralldevelopmentandutilizationofhillocksandgentleslopesisamainwayforrealizingtheequilibriumbetweenoccupationandsupplementationofarableland,aneffectiveapproachforguaranteeingthereasonablelanddemandineconomicandsocialdevelopmentandanimportantmeasureforfacilitatingtheconstructionofthenewsocialistcountryside".ThusitcanbeseenthatZhejianghadanapparentintentionofdevelopingsomehillocksandgentleslopesintsGovernmentonStrengtheningArableLandProtectionandPromotingtheScientificDevelopmentofUrbanizationobservesthat"effortsshouldbemadetoearnestlychangetheurbanandrurallandusepatterns,tostrictlyprotectarablelandparticularlythefinelandindamareas,topromotetheeconomyandeffectiveutilizationoflandresourcesandtofacilitatethescientificeconomicandsocialdevelopment".ThusitcanbeseenthatYunnansintentionforexploitingandutilizinghillocksandgentleslopeswasinthefirstplacetoprotectthefinearablelandonwhichthepeopleofYunnanrelyforsurvivalwhereasindustrializationandurbanizationwasa"mandatoryoption".Figure2 ContributionofFoodPricestoCPIGrowthandtheContributionRatiosfromJanuarytoJune2011FromJanuarytoJune,thedrasticriseinpricesofpourefoodpricestofoodprices,%year-on-yearinthefirsthalfoftheyear,,%(%year-on-year,,%ofthefoodpricerise)offoodpricerise;%year-on-year,,%,thecontributionoftheriseinpricesofpoultryandre,thalfoftheyear,themonthlyhousingpricesallrosebymorethan6%,yearonyear,%,oditiesto,namely,,%,%%inJune(Figure3).金沙澳门体育门户

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